Viewing entries in

Tips and Examples for Effective Personalized Leadership Training


Tips and Examples for Effective Personalized Leadership Training

Managing complexity, change, and strategic thinking are the most common leadership development competencies. No doubt you have spent multiple training hours on implementing frameworks and off-the-shelf solutions to help your teams be more effective. 

How did you define success? Were you able to measure a change in behavior and the impact on your bottom line?

I propose that while many existing courses about "Time Management", "Deal with Change", and "Embrace Ambiguity" have their rightful place in the Organizational Development curriculum, they're missing one crucial element: customization. 

No, I'm not talking about branding it to your company by slapping your logo on the slides. I mean actually customizing actionable implementation tips to the individual leader. 


By using Personality Type knowledge. 

"Oh my gosh, we have so many personalities among our leaders, I wouldn't know where to begin or how to get all of them under one hat. No way we can please everyone!"

Lucky you - the solution I'm proposing takes the guesswork out of it for you. 

"That's fine and dandy, but we need our leaders to commit to company goals; all root for the same goal; be team-players, you know?"

Lucky you - the solution I'm proposing will improve inner- and inter-team communication and collaboration. 

"Sounds great, but we've already committed to a program and can't really switch horses right now."

Lucky you - the solution I'm proposing works well as a stand-alone and can also be used to enhance existing programs. 

Enough teasing, drumroll please: welcome to Matrix Insights.

This brand new online platform provides in-depth personal profiles, comparison between Types, and Development Areas for each Type.

For example, "Breakthrough Leadership Skills" often come down to

  1. Dealing with Ambiguity and Paradox
  2. Managing Change and Complexity
  3. Strategic Agility

Every high-potential needs these skills to be successful. Traditionally, companies provide time management resources and operational management trainings for support. These are great and have their rightful place in leadership development, but I for one know that the same training class has different effects on its participants, and personality type is one of the deciding factors. 

To accelerate learnings from traditional trainings and make them stick better, faster, Matrix Insights provides Type-specific action items to practice building these skills. 

As such, Matrix Insights access can be added on top of existing programs to enhance content retention and engagement at the time of need, and it also makes an effective basis for one-on-one or group coaching. 

Here's an example using ESTJ and ENFJ leaders side by side.

ESTJ leaders have natural talents for organization, efficiency, and practicality. To develop the three skills mentioned above, here's a personalized approach:

Dealing with Ambiguity & Paradox
ESTJs like to rely on tried and true strategies when dealing with situations. They like to perfect what already works well and that does not always open the door for considerations to new choices. When faced with ambiguous situations, evaluate the tried and true options for responding and identify a couple of new ways to approach the problem at hand. Find others who can provide a significantly different view of the situation and who can suggest new tactics for addressing the presenting ambiguity.

Reduce ambiguity by declaring the A1.
Clarifying priorities by sorting associated tasks, identifying areas of needed information, and designating tasks by As, Bs, and Cs, where A is most important to C low importance. Even in the face of ambiguity or paradoxical uncertainty, knowing the A1--even if it is just for the day--is a clear step forward. Make a plan to revise the priorities over the course of several weeks when dealing with a complex problem as conditions will change and the current A1 may drop off the plate. Humans are galvanized around a priority and it is doubly so for ESTJs, so declare some.

Managing Change and Complexity for ESTJs
Who can provide you with alternative interpretations of information in change?  
Typically ESTJs are eager to take efficient action and to take care of the “to do list” as quickly as possible.  To do so, ESTJs need to confidently take action based on the information they have, which as a general rule, they have vetted and decided is worth their attention.  Herein lies the potential problem--speed and bias.  ESTJs can improve their management of change if they do not assume that everyone has the same perspective and if they actively solicit views from others on the change under consideration.  In fact, make a list of all of those individuals who typically see things differently from you and seek out their perspectives.  What and how will they interpret some of the messages that you are contemplating providing during change can be useful to consider.  They may even provide you with tips for making the messages clearer and more useful.

What rules of thumb make dealing with complexity easier?
ESTJs are naturals at finding “rules of thumb” to make sense of and act on situations.  Usually, their approach to complexity is to break it into smaller units of information and respond in a more tactical manner; however, this may not serve them well in terms of understanding the layers of dynamics in a situation nor will it clarify how to manage those dynamics that haven’t been fully recognized.  Usually, ESTJs have had enough experience with an array of situations that they have a useful set of heuristics or pragmatic tips for addressing similar situations in the future.  There is value in creating a  “tactics log” to identify the most typical ways to manage change and to enrich this list, ask others for their short rules for various complex situations.  

Strategic Agility
Action plan inclusive of speculative outcomes?
Make a list of five hypothetical adjustments on a product or service regarding how this product or service might look in ten years given social, technological, and economic changes. Speculate based on a few hunches and create a elevator sales pitch on each of the five hypotheticals. Discuss your explorations with a colleague and examine how this kind of process can aid strategic thinking.

Found a way to explore trends?
More often than not ESTJs require more data points than intuitive types before reporting that a trend exists. Practice projecting a trend based on three data points rather than having a large set of data to create a prediction. One of the challenges of ESTJs is to learn to create a possible trend based on a few data points so with this tip, practice the stretch.

Leaders with ENFJ preferences, by contrast, have innate abilities for empathy, mentoring, and maintaining harmony. Obviously, they would approach the three skills from a completely different angle:

Dealing with Ambiguity and Paradox
Looking for the perfect outcome?
Even though it is clear that there are no perfect solutions ENFJs often look for them. In a psychological “feedback loop” built into their type dynamic, ENFJs “see” possible solutions which are “evaluated” and found unacceptable. This prompts more interest in finding better solutions. It is important to become aware of this and to break the pattern. Create a list of the mission critical criteria to use in evaluating the available data and outlined options. This will enable ENFJs to identify what is sufficient and effective.

Energy levels unusually high?
ENFJs find that they become more energized by solving complex problems and ambiguity usually makes things much more complex. A very important strategy for keeping all this in perspective is to make note of the energy level and evaluate how this is serving you at the time. There is a good chance that taking time out and meditating--even for a few minutes--will introduce a relaxation response which has the benefit of encouraging focus and directing attention that leads to finding a successful response to the situation at hand. 

Managing Change and Complexity
Use empathy to help drive change?
ENFJs have a knack for understanding what others are experiencing.  This ability can benefit their change management tactics by tapping into the needs of others and stepping into other perspectives on the change that is to be implemented.  While such empathetic “sight” might not change the decisions in change, it can inform how best to communicate, what to anticipate, and how to respond to others finding the change difficult. 

Using cues to go with the flow in complex situations?
Complex situations are in a state of flux--the greater the complexity, the more energy is in the system where the complexity resides.  ENFJs can quickly ascertain the complexity of situations and in their passion to help contribute to improving things, they may bypass some key clues.  A useful question to ask yourself is: What factors am I emphasizing and what might I see in the situation if I changed emphasis?  What methods of monitoring shifts in the situation have I put in place? How are you observing or monitoring the primary movers, influencers, and doers in the situation?

Strategic Agility
Why the urge to decide clips your agile considerations.
Being strategically agile means being able to flex with new information or new insights. ENFJs are wired to decide and move forward, whether or not the situation requires it. When in this mode, ENFJs spend energy on deciding and acting on what is believed to be the best strategic plan at the moment. This inoculates ENFJs from paying attention to new emerging ideas. Create a strategy log or journal in which you can keep your ideas and sketch out possibilities.

Cutting loose from the values anchor.
Like other NFs, ENFJs seek to take action and make recommendations on options that align with values and ideals. This creates a drag on new energy and on agile considerations that may emerge. One of the ways to manage this is to be unambiguous about the top five values on which you based your decisions. The clearer you are about those values, the easier it is to contract choices and measure the impact on the current choice and to ask what other choices can be pursued that value those not able to attend.


What's even more powerful than knowing your own Type? Knowing your team's.


What's even more powerful than knowing your own Type? Knowing your team's.

Back in December I spent a week with an extraordinary group of people in a co-working space called Studiomates. We clarified Type preferences for a lot of talented creators and creatives at the time - most of them asking what this knowledge might mean for their relationships, all of them open and eager to learn more. 

Yes, Type practitioner heaven. :-) 

Last week I had the privilege of getting a dozen individuals around the table who actually form a team. Everyone already knew their Type, but here was the chance of experiencing how Type preferences show up in everyday working situations, and seeing it all in one framework.

The Type table is such a simple tool that it's easy to sweep under the rug, but it's the only tool I know that can powerfully demonstrate holes in diversity, potential areas of over-emphasis, and potential blind spots. I find it particularly helpful in homogenous teams, where inevitably, one or more people have to operate outside of their own preferences, and are likely to experience increased stress.

Here's a blank framework for your consideration:

Blank Type Table

Blank Type Table

Each of the 16 Types is represented by its 4-letter Myers-Briggs© shorthand, as well as its Temperament / Essential Motivator™, Interaction Styles™, and pattern description as published by Dr. Linda Berens. You'll see the 8 cognitive function shorthand on the right in the order they appear as well.

Practitioner Tip:

When introducing Type in the glory of all its 256 potential combinations, make sure your group or team has basic (ideally solid) prior knowledge of Type. A one-page "cheat sheet" of all functions and basic Type descriptions helps participants stay on top of the information. 


'cos they're awesome - here are some "lessons learned" illustrations, shared anonymized / with permission:


What Personality Type is Frank Underwood?


What Personality Type is Frank Underwood?

Hello! Thanks for visiting and please enjoy the free info below!

Just fyi, you can find me over at from now on, where I'm making custom lettering and calligraphy.

This archive will be discontinued next month. 

"House of Cards", the American version, is an original Netflix series. It's a political drama following the main character, Frank Underwood.

He's ... interesting. Manipulative, superior, condescending, egocentric, scheming, planning, talented in tactics, strategy, and diplomacy, cunning, highly intelligent, and ruthless.

So, naturally, I wondered - which Personality Type fits this description?

Given the right circumstances, every single one, I'd say.

Still, these particular circumstances are the political arena. We know that Frank, or Francis, as his wife calls him, attended a military college and despite poor grades graduated with a Law degree from Harvard.(1)

One could argue that the Types most likely to be drawn to public service are the Stabilizers(TM): ISTJ, ISFJ, ESTJ, ESFJ. They are inherently skilled at logistics, and have the deep-seated psychological need for membership, belonging, responsibility, and duty.

While people of all Types are drawn to serve their country or practice law for different reasons, Frank's reasons seem to be power and influence.

“Money is the Mc-mansion in Sarasota that starts falling apart after 10 years. Power is the old stone building that stands for centuries.”(2)

The Interaction Style(TM) that's most likely to be driven by a need to achieve and exerting control is the In-Charge(TM) style. Types in this group are ESTJ, ENTJ, ESTP, and ENFJ.

He's often seen sitting by the window and smoking all night, connecting with his wife and making plans. He's analyzing long-ranging cause and effects, mentally juggling dozens of representatives, their affiliations and pressure points in his head, showing tremendous ability of analysis. Introverted Thinking (Ti) is the function often associated with this skill, and the Types with dominant Ti are ISTP and INTP.

His success might be attributed to his analytical skills, but what if there are deeper forces at work? Frank's success rate in knowing and predicting how different scenarios are likely to play out is impressive. This gift for foresight might point us to the skills of introverted Intuiting (Ni), dominant for INTJ and INFJ Types.

Out of the 16 Types, these broad strokes covered the following possibilities:





Though planning, analyzing, and strategizing are traits usually associated with the Thinking preference, I'm reluctant to rule out Feeling altogether. Introverted Feeling of Fi is also known as the valuing function, that thing we do when we run something through our internal filter of right-wrong, yes-no, like-dislike. Frank grew up as a child of a peach farmer in rural South Carolina, which might have instilled a value of money and luxury in him, which in turn may be the driving force behind his need for power. Either way, Type doesn't explain everything, the environment plays an important role as well.

If we're looking at Temperament again, what is his inner motivation? Is it responsibility and duty (SJ), meaning, significance, and personal growth (NF), the freedom to act and ability to make an impact (SP), or mastery, knowledge, self-control, and competence (NT)?(3)

My vote would go to the latter, which leaves us with INTJ, INTP, ENTJ, and ENTP. All NTs have innate strategic skill sets. The TPs excel at analyzing, the TJs at organizing and getting things done. The NJs are great at intuitively knowing, the NPs at seeing themes, patterns, and possibilities.

I'm inclined to go with INTJ for Frank Underwood, because of his elaborate planning. He doesn't seem to prefer acting at the spur of a moment, although he is able to do so and frequently must. INTJs have a Chart-the-Course(TM) Interaction Style, which places them at a vantage point, overseeing how all items come together in one play.

Leading with introverted Intuiting (Ni), INTJs seem to have superior knowledge of the universe, dipping into wisdom pools of the collective unconscious. Supported by extraverted Thinking (Te), they see their ideas realized in the world. Fi is in the third position, enabling them to have fun with their values. Extraverted Sensing (Se) is the "inferior" function, meaning he's likely to indulge in bad foods when stressed, while at the same time he's aspiring to get fit with more exercise.

Yeah, I feel pretty good about INTJ. For now. Haven't seen the whole season yet. Then again, it's called "House of Cards" for a reason - everything can collapse in on itself in an instant. ;-)

Have you seen the show? What do you think?


If you'd like to know your Type and compare it to others, consider investing in a license to access Matrix Insights - the software that provides not only your in-depth profile, but also comparative reports, development strategies, and actionable tips on how to take Type to work. 



3 Essential Motivators, Linda V. Berens

4. Interaction Styles, Linda V. Berens

Image by peterjroberts, Flickr, creative commons license


Perfect Valentine's Gifts for every Type


Perfect Valentine's Gifts for every Type

How we show our love and appreciation is influenced by our Love Type and our Personality Type. 

If you don't know what to get yourself or your lover this year, read on for suggestions. 

If you wonder why your lover keeps getting you sucky gifts, read on for explanation - and then point them here so they might learn how to better please you. 

I try to live by the Platinum Rule:

Treat everyone the way THEY want to be treated. 

That means not getting my husband a cuddly bear, or a card, or anything remotely sentimental and useless. In turn, he asks me every year what I want. Birthdays, anniversaries, Hallmark Holidays, Christmas - Every. Single. Time. I know that's because only when he knows what I want can he be sure to get me the perfect gift. But I'd like for him to, just, get it

And every occasion my answer is the same: "Yes, Darling, I'd appreciate a token of your appreciation in the form of flowers, chocolates, or anything personal and thoughtful. Ta very much." 

If you're in a similar boat, here are some thoughts:

Since we all assume everyone thinks and behaves like us, you may not be aware of a difference between you two. So, first you need to know how you and your partner like to express and receive loving gestures. A quick and easy way to do this is the 5 Love Languages questionnaire.

Your results may vary between these five lenses:

Once you know your and your partner's preference, it should be a little more straightforward. For example, for someone who loves

  • Words of Affirmation, consider writing a love letter.
  • Acts of Service may be a book of coupons for household chores to be used throughout the year.
  • Receiving Gifts may be more along the chocolates, flowers, or jewelry line. 
  • Quality Time can be spent at a museum, a walk in the park, or a weekend mini-break.
  • Physical Touch can be an invitation to a spa, or a couple's massage course you take together. 

Another way to honor your and your partner's preferences would be looking at your Personality Types. Let's focus on the Essential Motivator™ or Temperament lens, as they give us an indication of core psychological needs. 

The Catalyst™ Temperament, or if you have an NF in your Type code

The core needs are for the meaning and significance that come from having a sense of purpose and working toward some greater good. They need to have a sense of unique identity. They value unity, self-actualization, and authenticity.

In other words, don't get them a toaster for Valentine's, even if theirs just broke. This is a special day, and your love is special, and should be celebrated as such. 

Your lovely Catalyst™ will likely appreciate a personalized display of affection, something that shows you spent time and forethought into pleasing them. They'll take pleasure in preparing the same for you, so be sure to appreciate it exuberantly. 

The Theorist™ Temperament, or if you have an NT in your Type code

The core needs are for mastery of concepts, knowledge, and competence. People of this temperament want to understand the operating principles of the universe and to learn or even develop theories for everything. They value expertise, logical consistency concepts, and ideas and seek progress. They tend toward pragmatic, utilitarian actions with a technology focus.

In other words, spending time on a thoughtful, romantic gesture may receive a neutral response. 

Your lovely Theorist™ is more likely to appreciate a nice dinner, or a gift card to their favorite book- or gadget store. Which is what you might receive from them, as well. 

The Stabilizer™ Temperament, or if you have an SJ in your Type code

The core needs are for group membership and responsibility. They need to know they are doing the responsible thing. They value stability, security, and a sense of community. 

In other words, an extravagant, lavish gift may have an unexpected reaction of doubt, worry about the expense, or guilt. 

Your lovely Stabilizer™ will very likely appreciate a traditional present like flowers and a card. If you want to take it a step further, personalize the process and suggest establishing a Valentine's tradition just for you two. When they surprise you this year, think of all the memories you'll be creating together. 

The Improviser™ Temperament, of if you have an SP in your Type code

The core needs are to have the freedom to act without hindrance and to see a marked result from action. People of this temperament highly value aesthetics, whether in nature or art. Their energies are focused on skillful performance, variety, and stimulation.

In other words, don't repeat yourself

Your lovely Improviser™ is more likely to appreciate an experience with you - the more spontaneous, the better. They're the ones you want to go all out for, and who'll go all out for you. 

Hope you'll have a lovely February, and why not treat yourself as well. <3

Essential Motivator descriptions by Linda Berens

Image by me - that's what hubby prepared for our last anniversary. He's still milking it. 


ENFJ Preferences at Work


ENFJ Preferences at Work

“Warm, supportive, and friendly, ENFJs work well when they can focus on people’s aspirations, develop organized plans to meet goals, and maintain integrity as they work.”(1)

With every new project I work on, every new team I meet in a workshop, every new client I coach with, I try to establish a connection. I open up, heart on sleeve. I may share private information, in an effort to make the other people comfortable to share a bit of themselves with me, too. I hardly even think about it. It’s not a calculated attempt to manipulate, it’s an expression of my extraverted Feeling function wanting to harmonize and connect with others.

Sometimes it works, sometimes it backfires.

As a young Executive Assistant in Spain, I received this piece of advice:

“You really shouldn’t be so friendly with everybody. You should be guarding (your boss) a lot more! You can’t just let anyone in who needs to see him. You need to say “no” more.”

That was a tough pill to swallow, because concentrating on the needs of only one person on a team of, say, 20, significantly narrowed my mood barometer. It’s true, at the time, before learning about emotional intelligence, self-regulating, and simply becoming more mature, my moods often depended on the people around me. When you’re a sucker for positive feedback (and a glutton for punishment), putting all the connection eggs in only one basket is dangerous.

More recently as a self-employed coach and trainer, I find that I indeed find tremendous joy in making plans on how to reach goals. My friends make fun of how many notebooks I buy (I have 3 paper calendars on the go right now, plus Charlie Gilkey’s blog and project planners online), but I use all of them – and even keep most of the information straight. It’s fun to map out what I want to be doing over the next 30, 60, 90 days. What seemed overwhelming looks a lot less daunting and more doable once it’s divvied into action steps, black (as well as red, green, purple, orange, and blue) on white. By the same token, what seemed simple in my mind becomes a lot more concrete and tangible once I try to pin down and describe all the moving parts. 

Again, the tone of my self-talk often depends on how much I got done. If the day or week were spent on emergent tasks, I might write down what I already did just to be able to cross something off. The rest will get postponed. 

Of course I get a sense of satisfaction once something is done, no doubt about it. But it’s also true that the older I get, the more easily distracted I seem to be. It’s hard to get motivated by myself: although I know the work I want to offer is valuable and helpful for people, I still need accountability to get things done. Deadlines, actual clients, my accountability teams, and my coach are helping me with that. It truly takes a village.  

Still, the integrity piece I find most important of all.

During my apprenticeship to become a Foreign Language Secretary, I rotated through various departments. I liked HR best, because I loved how fellow apprentices would pop their heads in with questions or issues, and I was able to help them on the spot. Instant gratification and happy customers – what’s not to love? That’s when I decided to study HR Management, motivated in part because I thought I could do it all better than the department was doing things at the time.

I know, that’s an ENFJ cliché right there, but it’s true.

Once I studied HR and started working in recruitment, however, it became clear that my idea of what an organization should be doing for its employees, and what was actually happening in business, were worlds apart. As Otto Kroeger wrote,

“Inevitably, as they accept promotions, they find themselves at odds with corporate realities: profits, productions, cutbacks, and the like. The more ENFJs rise to the loftier positions within the organization, the more they may be setting themselves up for a struggle between their personal demands and organizational demands. (…) Hence, when an ENFJ is present, no matter what the product or mission, the people involved will be important and human dynamic will be made a central part of the process.”(2)

I know now that taking time to reflect on my values and critically analyzing other potential stakeholders’ goals can save me a lot of worry and doubt. Staying true to myself while continuing to maintain harmony with others is a lifelong quest, and one that I love exploring in the world of work and careers every day - for myself and my clients.

If you have ENFJ preferences and these descriptions resonated with you, why not join me in a webinar specifically for ENFJs and how we can fall in love with our jobs again. You can learn more and sign up here.

(1) Hirsh, Elizabth, Katherine W. Hirsh, Sandra Krebs Hirsh: Introduction to Type® and Teams, 2nd Edition, CPP Inc., 2003

(2) Kroeger, Otto with Janet M. Thuesen: Type Talk at Work – How the 16 Personality Types determine your success on the job, Delacorte Press®, 1992

Image: Vintage National ad, flickr, Creative Commons, by pds209


The Grey's Anatomy MBTI® Chart


The Grey's Anatomy MBTI® Chart

Hello! Thanks for visiting and please enjoy the free info below! 

Just fyi, you can find me over at from now on, where I'm making custom lettering and calligraphy. 

This archive will be discontinued next month. 

Since MBTI® Charts seem to be quite popular these days, at least on my blog, I've prepared one for Grey's Anatomy for your viewing pleasure.

Fictional characters are a challenge to correctly identify through the Type lens, especially since this particular show is set in a hospital and life-or-death situations are the norm. In other words, we no longer can be sure whether their behavior is a manner of stress response or indicative of true preference.

Either way - I hope you're having some fun with this! Thank you for spending 2013 with me, and looking forward to staying connected in the New Year. 

All the best,

Doris xx

The Grey's Anatomy MBTI® Chart by Doris Füllgrabe, 


The Weight of a Snowflake


The Weight of a Snowflake

I just tweeted about watching snowflakes out of my window instead of doing some work. Of course, the snowing stopped not five minutes afterward. But my friend Jim Peak over at just sent me the most beautiful story in response, origin unknown, and I have to share it with you: 

“Tell me the weight of a snowflake,” a coal-mouse asked a wild dove.

“Nothing more than nothing,” was the answer.

“In that case, I must tell you a marvelous story,” the coal-mouse said.

“I sat on the branch of a fir, close to its trunk, when it began to snow-not heavily, not in a raging blizzard--no, just like in a dream, without a wound and without any violence.  Since I did not have anything better to do, I counted the snowflakes settling on the twigs and needles of my branch.  Their number was exactly 3,741,952.  When the 3,741,953rd dropped onto the branch, nothing more than nothing, as you say- the branch broke off.”

Having said that, the coal-mouse flew away.

The dove, since Noah’s time an authority on the matter, thought about the story for awhile, and finally said to herself, ”Perhaps there is only one person’s voice lacking for peace to come to the world.”

In the spirit of the holidays, wishing you and your loved ones a peaceful, joyful, and blessed season. 


Risk-Taking Entrepreneurs, Investment, and Personality Type


Risk-Taking Entrepreneurs, Investment, and Personality Type

Had a super educational event yesterday! Ted Pearlman invited me to provide the Type perspective during a presentation by Larry Swedroe about investment to the many freelancers and entrepreneurs at studiomates

Here's what I learned about investing:

  • Never buy variable annuities 
  • Investing in the stock market is never safe
  • Only work with registered advisors who provide a fiduciary standard of care
  • Ask them what advice they gave 10 years ago, and if they invest in the same funds they're trying to sell you
  • Make a will and get a durable power of attorney
  • Be clear on what money represents to you and your family (this is where working with a Type coach comes in handy!)
  • Buy when others are fearful, sell when others are greedy
  • Make a plan and stick with it - no need to pay attention to indices or forecasts
  • Review the plan when underlying assumptions change

In the end, we didn't have time to present on how Type influences risk-taking or decision-making. But you know what? That's ok, because I got to spend a whole week with a group of smart creatives in their space, talking Type 1:1 with some of them. Plus, I prepared some quick&dirty handouts available on Ted's blog. 

I love sharing how Type awareness really has a lot to offer to everyone who is open to learning more about themselves, and the studiomates were great participants. The process of finding your core preferences may be challenging, because really, when was the last time someone asked you how you communicate, which roles you are naturally drawn to, or whether you tend to focus on outcome or process? Thankfully, the consensus was that the effort of self-analysis is worth it in the end, because the knowledge you gain opens you up to a new way of looking at - everything. 


Books by investment expert, Larry Swedroe

Books by my Type Guru, Linda Berens, Ph.D. 

Image by Tax Credit, Creative Commons, flickr