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Berens CORE Approach

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Berens CORE Approach

BerensCOREApproach
BerensCOREApproach

Linda V. Berens, Ph.D., is an author, organizational consultant, and leading edge type theorist. She teaches Integral Type using multiple models to help people arrive at their best-fit type.

Using her CORE approach allows me to make Type differences come alive in presentations and workshops. Participants learn about their cognitive preferences, outlook on life, underlying motivation and beliefs, as well as behavioral and energy patterns.

C - Cognition

Carl Jung's personality type theory provides explanations for how we use our brain. He identified eight different functions about where our mental energy flows, how we take in and process information, and how we make decisions. His model provides key insights into self-awareness.

O - Outlook

The outlook lens offers insights into how your context and life conditions influence who you’ve always been, who you are now, and potential future development.

R - Roots

Temperament theory explains "why" we do what we do. It explores our motivations, beliefs, sources of psychological stress, innate talents, core needs and values.

E - Expression

Interaction Style theory explains "how" we do what we do. It explores our energy patterns, potential sources of interpersonal conflict, and interactional dynamics.

(adapted from http://lindaberens.com/blog/berens-core-method/ with permission.)

If you'd like to bring a CORE™ workshop to your organization or community:

E-mail me

 

Image by Wild Tofu, flickr, Creative Commons License

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Interaction Styles

Linda V. Berens, Ph.D. developed a model of four different Interaction Styles we use to influence and relate to others. Awareness of your Interaction Style will allow you to

  • Improve private and professional relationships
  • Enjoy more effective communication
  • Develop more flexible leadership and team working skills

The four Interaction Styles describe patterns of different communication, role, and attention preferences. They form the basic framework for each style.

During a recent Interaction Styles Workshop, a participant commented on how some of his IT team members don't say anything during meetings. Doris suggests how a knowledge of Interaction Styles may provide actionable strategies to create more effective cooperation. (Note: due to the position of the camera, the participant's audio is a little low and Doris moves out of frame.) Slide graphic taken from the Berens CORE™ Approach (with permission). Excerpt from "Understanding Yourself and Others® - An Introduction to Interaction Styles 2.0" by Linda V. Berens, Ph.D. (with permission).

Chart-the-Course™ The theme is having a course of action to follow. People of this style focus on knowing what to do and keeping themselves, the group, or the project on track. They prefer to enter a situation having an idea of what is to happen. They identify a process to accomplish a goal and have a somewhat contained tension as they work to create and monitor a plan. The aim is not the plan itself, but to use it as a guide to move things along toward the goal. Their informed and deliberate decisions are based on analyzing, outlining, conceptualizing or foreseeing what needs to be done.

Behind-the-Scenes

The theme is getting the best result possible. People of this style focus on understanding and working with the process to create a positive outcome. They see value in many contributions and consult outside inputs to make an informed decision. They aim to integrate various information sources and accommodate differing points of view. They approach others with a quiet, calm style that may not show their strong convictions. Producing, sustaining, defining and clarifying are all ways they support a group's process. They typically have more patience than most with the time it takes to gain support through consensus for a project or to refine the result.

In-Charge

The theme is getting things accomplished through people. People of this style are focused on results, often taking action quickly. They often have a driving energy with an intention to lead a group to the goal. They make decisions quickly to keep themselves and others on task, on target, and on time. They hate wasting time and having to back-track. Mentoring, executing actions, supervising, and mobilizing resources are all ways they get things accomplished. They notice right away what is not working in a situation and become painfully aware of what needs to be fixed, healed, or corrected.

Get-Things-Going

The theme is persuading and involving others. They thrive in facilitator or catalyst roles and aim to inspire others to move to action, facilitating the process. Their focus is on interaction, often with an expressive style. They Get-Things-Going™ with upbeat energy, enthusiasm, or excitement, which can be contagious. Exploring options and possibilities, making preparations, discovering new ideas, and sharing insights are all ways they get people moving along. They want decisions to be participative and enthusiastic, with everyone involved and engaged.

If you'd like to bring an Interaction Styles workshop to your organization or community:

E-mail me

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Temperament / Essential Motivators

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Temperament / Essential Motivators

Temperament book
Temperament book

Temperament Theory began around 450 bc with Hippocrates' description of four physical dispositions: Choleric, Melancholic, Phlegmatic, and Sanguine. Over time, authors like Paracelsus, Myers, and Keirsey have refined these definitions. From the MBTI® language you may be familiar with the combinations NF, SJ, NT, and SP. Having said that, it is important to recognize that Temperament theory is separate from, for example, the Myers-Briggs interpretation of Jung's theory of personality type.

In my work with Temperament theory, I use the Berens' terminology: Catalyst™, Stabilizer™, Theorist™, and Improviser™. To avoid misunderstanding with temperament in terms of someone's attitude, Linda is using Essential Motivators to describe our deep psychological needs, and the values we have to help us fill those needs.

Awareness of your Essential Motivators will aid your understanding of

  • Core psychological needs
  • Innate talents and skills
  • Typical behaviors that stress or energize you

The four Temperaments describe a pattern of needs and values, which in turn connect with different behaviors and skill sets.

Excerpt from "Understanding Yourself and Others® - An Introduction to the 4 Temperaments 4.0" by Linda V. Berens, Ph.D. (with permission).

The Catalyst™ Temperament

The core needs are for the meaning and significance that come from having a sense of purpose and working toward some greater good.They need to have a sense of unique identity. They value unity, self-actualization, and authenticity. People of this temperament prefer cooperative interactions with a focus on ethics and morality. They tend to trust their intuition and impressions first and then seek to find the logic and the data to support them. Given their need for empathic relationships, they learn more easily when they can relate to the instructor and the group.

They tend to be gifted at unifying diverse peoples and helping individuals realize their potential. They build bridges between people through empathy and clarification of deeper issues. They use these same skills to help people work through difficulties. Thus, they can make excellent mediators, helping people and companies solve conflicts through mutual cooperation. If working on a global level, they champion a cause. If working on an individual level, they focus on growth and development of the person.

The Stabilizer™ Temperament

The core needs are for group membership and responsibility. They need to know they are doing the responsible thing. They value stability, security, and a sense of community. They trust hierarchy and authority and may be surprised when others go against these social structures. People of this temperament prefer cooperative actions with  focus on standards and norms. Their orientation is to their past experiences, and they like things sequenced and structured. They tend to look for the practical applications of what they are learning.

They are usually talented at logistics and at maintaining useful traditions. They masterfully get the right things in the right place, at the right time, in the right quantity, in the right quality, to the right people, and not to the wrong people. They know how things have always been done, so they anticipate where things can go wrong. They have a knack for attending to rules, procedures, and protocol. They make sure the correct information is assembled and presented to the right people.

The Theorist™ Temperament

The core needs are for mastery of concepts, knowledge, and competence. People of this temperament want to understand the operating principles of the universe and to learn or even develop theories for everything. They value expertise, logical consistency concepts, and ideas and seek progress. They tend toward pragmatic, utilitarian actions with a technology focus. They trust logic above all else. They tend to be skeptical and highly value precision in language Their learning style is conceptual, and they want to know the underlying principles that generate the details and facts rather than the details alone.

They prefer using their gifts of strategic analysis to approach all situations. They constantly examine the relationship of the means to the overall vision and goal. No strangers to complexity, theories, and models, they like to think of all possible contingencies and develop multiple plans for handling them. They abstractly analyze a situation and consider previously unthought-of possibilities Researching, analyzing, searching for patterns, and developing hypothesis are quite likely to be their natural modus operandi.

The Improviser™ Temperament

The core needs are to have the freedom to act without hindrance and to see a marked result from action. People of this temperament highly value aesthetics, whether in nature or art. Their energies are focused on skillful performance, variety, and stimulation. They tend toward pragmatic, utilitarian actions with a focus on technique. They trust their impulses and have a drive to action. They learn best experientially and when they see the relevance of what they are learning to what they are doing. They enjoy hands-on, applied learning with a fast pace and freedom to explore.

The tend to be gifted at employing the available means to accomplish an end. Their creativity is revealed by the variety of solutions they come up with. They are talented at using tools, whether the tool be language, theories, a paint brush, or a computer. They tune into immediate sensory information and vary their actions according to the needs of the moment. They are gifted at tactics/ They can easily read the situation at hand, instantly make decisions, and, if needed, take actions to achieve the desired outcome.

If you'd like to bring a Temperament workshop to your organization or community:

 

 

Image by Nick Bramhall, flickr, Creative Commons license

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Psychological Type Theory

Swiss Psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875 - 1961) developed a personality theory at the beginning of the 20th century. He observed and explained patterns in seemingly random individual behavior.

His theory forms the basis for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Tool and has most recently found application in the Neuroscience of Personality research.

Energy

Jung's first observations revolved around two ways people engage with the world.

He defined the term Extraversion (in the MBTI results described with an 'E') for people who gain energy by relating to the outside world.
He defined Introversion (in the MBTI results described with a 'T') for people who gain energy by focusing on their own internal world.

Extraversion does not mean exaggerated, Introversion does not mean shy. The terms describe where our mental energy flows, and are also referred to as an "attitude".

Jung continued, stating that our brain activity is mainly engaged in one of two things: taking in information (a process he called Perception), or making decisions based on the information we have taken in (which he called a Judging process). These two processes are also referred to as the cognitive or mental functions.

Perception

Jung describes two forms of taking in information: Sensation (aka Sensing) 'S' or Intuition 'N'.

People who prefer Sensing 'S' tend to trust information from their five senses. They prefer detailed information about the here and now, as well as practical application. Introverted Sensing 'Si' is focused on past experiences and reviewing, Extraverted Sensing 'Se' is focused on experiencing the surroundings in the moment.
People who prefer Intuiting 'N' tend to find patterns and themes in the information they gather. They prefer general overviews and find possibilities of what the information might mean for future development. Introverted Intuiting 'Ni' is focused on a vision of what might be and foreseeing, Extraverted Intuiting 'Ne' is focused on future possibilities and brainstorming.

Sensing does not mean sensitive, Intuiting does not mean intuitive. The terms describe how we use our brains to take in information.

Judgment

Jung described two forms of decision-making: Thinking 'T' or Feeling 'F'.

People who prefer Thinking 'T' tend to make rational decisions based on logical objective analysis, considering the system and connected frameworks, and may not shy away from a debate. Introverted Thinking 'Ti' focuses on defining principles and analyzing, Extraverted Thinking 'Te' focuses on organizing and systematizing.
People who prefer Feeling 'F' tend to make rational decisions according to the framework of their values, how the decision might impact the people involved, and may prefer to have consensus and maintain harmony. Introverted Feeling 'Fi' focuses on clarifying what's important and valuing, Extraverted Feeling 'Fe' focuses on harmony and connecting.

Thinking does not mean rational, Feeling does not mean emotional. The terms describe how we use our brains to make decisions. 

If you'd like to bring a Type Workshop to your organization or community:

E-mail me

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MBTI® Background

Realizing the impact awareness of Jung's type theory could have on mankind, Katherine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers developed a questionnaire in the first half of the 20th century that has been tested for validity and reliability since then. The MBTI® today is available in over 30 languages and is the world's most trusted personality type assessment. Guidelines of ethical use require the results to be facilitated by a certified professional.

The Step I questionnaire comprises 93 items, resulting in a four-letter Type out of a possible 16 combinations.

Step II questionnaire comprises 144 items, resulting in a four-letter Type out of a possible 16 combinations, as well as providing insights into five different facets on all attitudes and functions for how each person may differ from another of the same Type.

Please note:

The tool is not theory:

Your psychological type is more than a four-letter choice between two options. Your type is dynamic, there is a hierarchy to your functions, and the patterns described by your whole, best-fit type are much richer than what you see at first glance. Therefore, there is no "boxing in" of people, rather the MBTI offers a short-hand explanation of your preferences.

The tool has specific purpose:

MBTI results offer tremendous insight into how you approach life and work, and how you might structure your personal and professional development path. It is not suitable for personnel recruitment or match-making.

Don't force your answers:

If you think one side "sounds better", ask your facilitator to explain the Jungian meaning. For example, Thinking does not mean cold or unfeeling, and Perceiving is not the same as procrastinating.

Careful about "typing" others:

People are complex, and just because they behave one way at work does not mean that is their actual personality type preference. We all have access to all functions at all times, it's the order in which we prefer them that gives insight into our patterns.

Choose Individual MBTI® if you'd like to take the questionnaire or visit Process & Samples for more information.

If you'd like to take the assessment:

E-mail me

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MBTI® Process and Samples

 

So you're ready to find out more about your Type preferences - congratulations!

Here's how the process works:

 

    1. Tell us which questionnaire you want to take (Step I=basic 93 items, or Step II=more detail 144 items)
    2. Tell us how you want to see your result (see below for sample reports)
    3. Tell us which accompanying manual you would like (see below for sample manuals)
    4. Agree on our terms of delivery and payment
    5. Follow instructions to complete the questionnaire online and you’re done!

On our side,

  1. We will give you access to our online questionnaire page
  2. Once you complete the questionnaire, we will receive a notification
  3. We will download the report you chose, and
  4. Fix a date with you to go over the result with you and answer any questions.

Sample Reports, choose one:

MBTI® Step I Basic Profile

The MBTI® Step I Basic Profile provides a summary of MBTI results, allowing for basic feedback. It provides reported type, explanations of the preferences, characteristics frequently associated with the type, and an easy-to-read graph displaying the preference clarity index.

Recommended in conjunction with specialized booklet exploring the area of interest.

Sample report provided by www.cpp.com

Step II™ Interpretive Report

Developed by Naomi L. Quenk and Jean M. Kummerow, the Step II™ Interpretive Report is a highly personalized narrative and graphic report that helps clients understand and apply their MBTI® results. It describes in detail the client's four-letter personality type as well as the results of another 20 facets, giving a more detailed insight into and adding understanding of the personality preference. These results are applied to four components of professional development inherent to national and international relocation: communication, change management, decision making, and conflict management. The report describes the client's style in these four areas and suggests ways of using that style more effectively.

Highly recommended for expats and executive coaching.

Sample Report provided by www.cpp.com

Career Report

Developed by Allen L. Hammer, the revised MBTI® Career Report shows how type affects career exploration and discusses the benefits of choosing a job that is a good fit for type. It explores preferred work tasks and work environments, most and least popular occupations, and offers strategies for improving job satisfaction. The report includes expanded coverage of popular fields, such as business, health care, computer technology, and high-level executive and management occupations.

Recommended for expat spouses in career transition.

Sample report provided by www.cpp.com

Communication Style Report

Effective communication is a core competency in today's global, fast-paced, team-oriented organizations, and absolutely essential when crossing cultures. Developed by Donna Dunning, the MBTI® Communication Style Report uses type preferences as a framework for understanding natural communication styles. This report can help increase understanding of communication strengths, offers practical tips for communicating with others and suggests steps for development.

Recommended in conjunction with Introduction to Type® and Communication booklet for team building, leadership development and conflict management initiatives, as well as with cross-cultural training for added insight during international relocation.

Sample report provided by www.cpp.com

Stress Management Report

Developed by Naomi L. Quenk, the MBTI® Stress Management Report helps individuals recognize the circumstances or events that are likely to trigger stress reactions and provides information and tips on how to deal most effectively with the challenges they present.

Recommended in conjunction with In the Grip booklet and accompanying coaching process, particularly during preparation and settling in phase of international relocation.

Sample Manuals, choose one:

(Providing information about all 16 Types)

Introduction to Type and Career

Written by Allen L. Hammer, the updated Introduction to Type® and Careers booklet provides interactive exercises and realistic descriptions to explore personality type and career matching. The guide also provides tips on goal setting and decision making, and lists potential obstacles in the career development process for all 16 MBTI types.

Recommended in conjunction with the MBTI(r) Career Report.

Sample content provided by www.cpp.com

Introduction to Type and Communication

Written by Donna Dunning, the Introduction to Type and Communication booklet provides a concise overview of communication skills and strategies, practical tips for communicating with others, and developmental tips for each of the 16 MBTI® types, as well as an introduction to differences in communication styles.

Recommended in conjunction with MBTI(r) and Communication Report, as well as cross-cultural training, particularly during international relocation.

Sample content provided by www.cpp.com.

Introduction to Type and Emotional Intelligence

Written by Roger R. Pearman, this new Introduction to Type and Emotional Intelligence booklet explores the connections between personality and EQ, and provides specific actions for EQ development for each of the 16 types. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is a term used to describe a person's ability to control impulses, show empathy, and persist in the face of obstacles with resilience and flexibility. Developing EQ can enhance leadership ability, enrich relationships, and extend influence.

Recommended in conjunction with coaching throughout international relocation.

Sample content provided by www.cpp.com

Introduction to Type and Teams

Written by Elizabeth Hirsh, Katherine W. Hirsh, and Sandra Krebs Hirsh, this second edition Introduction to Type® and Teams helps individuals understand how their MBTI® results relate to their contributions on a team. It features new descriptions of the eight Jungian preferences and their effects at work, along with an in-depth exploration of six issues at the core of every successful organization: communication, team culture, leadership, change, problem solving/conflict resolution, and stress.

Recommended exclusively in conjunction with a team workshop.

Sample content provided by www.cpp.com

Introduction to Type and Leadership

Written by Sharon Lebovitz Richmond, the Introduction to Type® and Leadership booklet helps leaders to identify individual leadership potential and create a plan tailored to specific leadership challenges while staying true to each leader's true nature.

It focuses on the three main activities of leaders:

  • Setting direction for an organization
  • Inspiring others to work toward that direction
  • Mobilizing the effective accomplishment of goals

Recommended in conjunction with follow-up coaching, as well as cross-cultural training particularly for leaders relocating internationally.

Sample content provided by www.cpp.com.

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MBTI® for You

The power of self knowledge

The MBTI® instrument has many possible applications for individuals, teams, and in organizations. If you are unfamiliar with its background, please read these posts on Type Theory and MBTI(r) Background.

Why you should know your personality type

Millions of people world-wide use this greater self knowledge to support e.g. change processes like an international relocation or a career transition. Many also find it useful during the process of redefining their life's purpose and goals, clarifying their relationship needs, or working on their Emotional Intelligence skills.

For executives, the MBTI® instrument is often used in conjunction with 360 degree feedback and other tools to provide a framework for executive coaching and leadership development.

Does this sound like you?

  • I heard about the MBTI(r) instrument and want to find out what my Type is.
  • I’m entering / changing my career and wonder which job makes the best use of my skills.
  • I’ve been quite stressed lately and want to come back to my normal self.
  • I’ve been having some tough conversations and want to improve my relationships.
  • My company is offering Executive Coaching to develop my leadership skills. How can type help me with that?
When you're ready to go, choose Individual MBTI® or visit our Process & Samples page for next steps!

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MBTI® Ethical Guidelines

  1. Identify type theory as the work of C.G. Jung and the instrument as the work of Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine C. Briggs.
  2. Present psychological type as describing healthy personality differences, not psychological disorders or fixed traits.
  3. Be adamant that all types are valuable: no type is better, healthier, or more desirable in any way.
  4. Describe preference and types in nonjudgmental terms at all times; be aware of how your own type biases may influence your words.
  5. Present type preferences as tendencies, preferences, or inclinations, rather than absolutes.
  6. Stress that type does not imply excellence, competence, or natural ability, only what is preferred.
  7. Never imply that all people of a certain type behave in the same way; type should not encourage stereotyping or be used to put people in rigid categories.
  8. Explain how people sometimes act in ways contrary to their preferences because of pressure from family, relationships, job environment, or culture. Consistent forced use of non preferences can cause stress.
  9. When describing preferences, distinguish between what has been shown by research and what are anecdotes to illustrate type.
  10. Provide appropriate interpretation of the MBTI®results for each and every administration of the MBTI instrument.
  11. It is unethical and in many cases illegal to require job applicants to take the Indicator if the results will be used to screen out applicants. The administrator should not counsel a person to, or away from, a particular career, personal relationship or activity based solely upon type information.

These guidelines are based on a collaborative effort between the Myers and Briggs Foundation, CPP, Inc., the Center for Applications of Psychological Type, CAPT, Inc., and the Association for Psychological Type International, APTi.

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